The game of Roulette is definitely the queen of all Casino games in Europe. Many claim that it was invented by a Chinese monk of the 14th century and imported to Europe by a Jesuite missionary. The French scientist and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), erroneously believed to be the inventor of this game, played an important role (perhaps unintentionally) as for its divulgation and development, thanks to his scientific contributions to the theory of probability.
The name roulette derives from the French word “little wheel” and consists of a layout of 37 numbered spaces from 0 to 36 (European roulette) as opposed to the American roulette with 38 spaces, as it contains the 00 (double zero) as well as the 0.
Roulette rules are rather easy to learn. After purchasing your chips, you can drag as many as you wish anywhere on the layout while trying to guess where the ball will land after spinning the wheel. There is a wide range of betting options this game:
- Straight bet (a bet made on full numbers (1 number)- pays 35 times your bet
- Split bet (a bet made on 2 close numbers) – pays 17 times your bet
- Street bet (a bet made on 3 numbers on a horizontal row)- pays 11 times your bet
- Square bet (a bet made on 4 numbers on a row – pays 8 times your bet
- Line bet (a bet made on 6 numbers on a row)- pays 5 times your bet
- Dozens bet (12 numbers. P= numbers from 1 to 12; M= numbers from 13 to 24; D = numbers from 25 to 36) – pays twice your bet
- Column bet (12 numbers. The 1st column includes the numbers 1-4-7-10-13-16-19-22-25-28-31-34; the 2nd column includes the numbers 2-5-8-11-14-17-20-23-26-29-32-35; the 3rd column includes the numbers 3-6-9-12-15-18-21-24-27-30-33-36). Pays twice your bet.
- Simple chances bet, that is, BLACK/RED, EVEN/ODD, MANQUE/PASSE. Each simple chance includes 18 numbers. Manque includes numbers from 1 to 18; Passe includes numbers from 19 to 36. Payoff is even money (1 to 1).
- There are many other bet types: the “neighbours” (the most renowned are the so-called “neighbours of zero”), the “series” (numbers that represent a specific sector of the wheel; the “finals”(for example, final 7 stands for 7,7,27); the “orphelins” (orphans). Payout is based on the winning number and the combination of numbers you have bet on.
If zero falls, all bets made by the players are considered lost except for those made on the same zero (or on numbers of its split or square bet) and those made on simple chances The latter are put “into prison” and are returned to the player if the chance on which he had bet on comes out. Many casinos pay directly half of the bet without waiting for the next shot.
The presence of the zero combined with the application of the abovementioned rules represent a mathematical advantage (edge) for the casino in terms of 1.35% over simple chances and 2.70% over all other chances.